The end of the Ottoman Empire

The end of the Ottoman Empire

24 July 1923, on this day

The Treaty of Lausanne, dissolved the Ottoman Empire and settling the boundaries of modern Turkey, is signed in Switzerland by Ottoman Empire & the Allied Powers, including Britain, France, Italy & Japan that fought in World War I.

Peace treaty concluded in 10th of August 1920 after World War I at Sèvres - France, between the Ottoman Empire on one hand, and the Allies (excluding Russia and the United States) on the other.

The treaty, which liquidated the Ottoman Empire and virtually abolished Turkish sovereignty, followed in the main the decisions reached at San Remo.

The treaty was accepted by the government of Sultan Mehmed Vahdettin VI at Istanbul but was rejected by the rival nationalist government of Kemal Atatürk at Ankara.

Atatürk's separate treaty with the USSR and his subsequent victories against the Greeks during the War of Independence forced the Allies to negotiate a new treaty in 1923, in Lausanne - Switzerland.

This treaty was signed on 24th of July 1923. The Sevres peace treaty imposed by the Allies on the Ottoman Empire after World War I had virtually destroyed Turkey as a national state.

The treaty was not recognized by the nationalist government under Mustafa Kemal Pasha (later known as Atatürk).

After the nationalist victory over the Greeks and the overthrow of the sultan during the War of Independence, Atatürk's government was in a position to request a new peace treaty. Accordingly, the signatories of the Treaty of Sevres and delegates of the USSR (excluded from the previous treaty) met at Lausanne - Switzerland. After lengthy negotiations a peace treaty was signed in 1923.

Turkey recovered Eastern Thrace, several Aegean islands, a strip along the Syrian border, the Smyrna district, and the internationalized Zone of the Straits (Bosphorus and Dardanelles), which, however, was to remain demilitarized and remain subject to an international convention.

Turkey recovered full sovereign rights over all its territory, and foreign zones of influence and capitulations were abolished. Outside the Zone of the Straits, no limitation was imposed on the Turkish military establishment. No reparations were exacted.

Photo- Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922.
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